Ethnography and Ethnography Archeology, Special Lecture for the SAT, Reading in the Korean Language Area, Non-Literature

I’ve heard of archeology, but I’ve never heard of ethnography.
Moreover, the term ethnography is even more so.
Living as a high school student
There are so many things you really need to know.
But don’t be afraid even if it’s your first fingerprint.
In reading comprehension, you just need to find key words in each paragraph and figure out how to explain the key words.
Of course, in order to do it well, it is not problem solving
It is a text-centered study, and repetition and review.

It is ‘ethnography and ethnography and archaeology’ where you can study the archaeological application of ethnography and ethnography.

My lectures are more helpful if you listen to them after previewing textbooks or meeting commentary materials on blogs.

Archeology is the study of the past through traces left by humans. However, in studying the lives of people in the past, sometimes the image of people living in the present is helpful. So, archaeologists have used the results and methods of ethnography to explain certain past phenomena. Ethnography is the study of the present life of human beings through participatory observation and detailed description of customs, activities, behaviors, and beliefs in living human cultures, traditionally non-Western cultures. It is the study of appearance. Ethnography has provided a wealth of information on the diversity of human behavior and the various ways of life of people around the world, and archaeologists have studied human life in the past based on the clues obtained from the information. In North America, for example, ethnographers study extant Native Americans and archaeologists study the past. Here, the link between the present and the past was obvious, and thus these two fields of study have maintained a close relationship.
The report written by ethnographers by observing current human behavior is called ethnography, which is one of the main sources of finding clues about the interpretation of past human behavior and establishing a model for it. Archaeologists often look for comparisons between ethnography and archeology to explain a phenomenon, a practice called ‘ethnographic analogy’. The ethnographic analogy is the analogical reasoning that the stereotypes observed ethnographically in extant human groups also existed in past societies. For example, ethnographic reports of early 20th-century North American Northwest Coast Indians living in long-structured homes provide an interpretive model for archaeologists studying inhabited structures discovered and built hundreds of years earlier in the region. By analogy, comparing the known present with the unknown past is one of the important ways in which archaeologists build knowledge. An analogy provides some understanding of a hitherto unknown phenomenon by suggesting that it resembles something known today. In other words, analogies are a way of explaining artifacts, relics, and other material aspects of past human behavior.
However, there has been a continuing debate over how archaeology uses analogies and whether they are a suitable way to understand past human behavior. Allison Wiley and Ian Hoder divide analogies into two categories: formal analogies and relational analogies. Formal analogy, simply put, is to infer that if some elements between two situations are similar, then other elements are also similar. Relational analogy is the inferring of similarities between two situations only if a direct link can be observed based on the historical, cultural, or natural continuity that exists between them. Both scholars argued that relational analogy is more powerful than formal analogy in archeology. For example, crescent-shaped stone artifacts have been unearthed in Alaska. And today, there are ethnographic reports that the Inuit living in the Arctic are of much the same shape, but using iron objects to cut meat. This allows archaeologists to claim with certainty that the artifact is a sword, not simply because of the similar shape of the two objects, but rather on the basis of the cultural and natural continuity in which the sword is used and the direct relationship between the two objects. because it can be inferred.
Ethnographic information has certain limitations in archaeological applications, since past human behavior and life patterns are much more diverse than those recorded in ethnographic literature of extant human groups. Neanderthals, for example, do not exist, so there is no ethnography of them. Moreover, ethnographers are often uninterested in or not documenting types of information important to archaeologists, such as diet and livelihood, burial practices, and techniques. So, in recent years, archaeologists have begun to study extant societies around the world on their own with the aim of obtaining more information about human actions and activities that could produce archaeological records. In this way, the study of extant human groups that archaeologists directly conduct to obtain useful information for finding out about the past is called ‘ethnoarchaeology’. To do this, archaeologists live with hunter-gatherers, learning how they spend their time, what their hunting habits are and how the bones are built up in their dwelling ruins. For example, archaeologists can go to villages in the Middle East and study the lives of their inhabitants to learn how to build houses and use space in hot and dry climates. You can also study the ritual activities of modern Mayan people there to learn more about Central American belief systems and religious practices. Based on the information obtained in this way, ethnography and archaeologists infer and interpret human past life and behavior.

CETMo-Magazine
Terra de Montes Center for Ethnography

to analyze
Archeology is the study of the past through traces left by humans.
meaning of archeology
However, in studying the lives of people in the past, sometimes the image of people living in the present is helpful.
Archeology and the Relevance of Present Life
So, archaeologists have used the results and methods of ethnography to explain certain past phenomena.
Why Archaeologists Use Ethnography
[Ethnography] is the study of the current state of human beings through participatory observation and detailed description of customs, activities, behaviors, and beliefs in living human cultures, traditionally non-Western cultures. It is the study of life.
The concept of ethnography
(Ethnography) has provided a wealth of information about the diversity of human behavior and the different ways of life of people around the world.
The role of ethnography
(Archaeologists) have studied human life in the past based on the clues obtained from the information.
The relationship between ethnography and archeology
In North America, for example, (ethnographers) study the extant Native Americans and (archaeologists) study the past.
Explain by way of example and contrast
Here, ① the link between the present and the past was self-evident, so ② these two fields of study have maintained a close relationship.
Reinforce your argument with examples
The concept of ethnography and its relation to archeology
Ethnography has provided a wealth of information on the diversity of human behavior and the various ways of life of people around the world, and archaeologists have studied human life in the past based on the clues obtained from the information.

The report written by ethnographers by observing current human behavior is called ethnography.
meaning of ethnography
This is one of the main sources of finding clues about the interpretation of past human behavior and establishing a model for it.
The function of ethnography
Archaeologists often look for comparisons between ethnography and archeology to explain a phenomenon, a practice called ‘(ethnographic analogy)’.
Research practices of archaeologists
[Ethnographic analogy] is an analogical reasoning that the stereotypes observed ethnographically in existing human groups also existed in the past society.
Meaning of ethnographic analogy
For example, ethnographic reports of early 20th-century North American Northwest Coast Indians living in long-structured homes provide an interpretive model for archaeologists studying inhabited structures discovered and built hundreds of years earlier in the region. By analogy, comparing the known present with the unknown past is one of the important ways in which archaeologists build knowledge.
One but not all archaeological research methods
(An analogy) (1) makes it possible to understand to some extent by suggesting that a hitherto unknown phenomenon is similar to something known today. In other words, (2) analogies are a way of explaining artifacts, relics, and other material aspects of past human behavior.
analogy function
Knowing can explain what you don’t know
Ethnographic Inference as a Key Research Method in Archeology
The ethnographic analogy is the analogical reasoning that the stereotypes observed ethnographically in extant human groups also existed in past societies. An analogy provides some understanding of a hitherto unknown phenomenon by suggesting that it resembles something known today.

However, there has been a continuing debate over how archaeology uses analogies and whether they are a suitable way to understand past human behavior.
Controversy over how analogies are used
(Alison Wiley and Ian Hoder) explain analogies by dividing them into two types: ‘formal analogy’ and ‘relational analogy’.
Explain as a way of distinguishing
Classification of watches, wrist watches, table watches
analysis clock hand plate, hand
[Formal analogy] is simply to infer that if some elements between two situations are similar, other elements are also similar. [Relational analogy] is to infer the similarity between two situations only if a direct relation can be observed based on the historical, cultural, or natural continuity that exists between them.
Meaning of formal analogy and relation analogy
Which analogy is more closely related?
①The two scholars argued that relational analogy is more powerful than formal analogy in archeology. For example, crescent-shaped stone artifacts have been unearthed in Alaska. And today, there are ethnographic reports that the Inuit living in the Arctic are of much the same shape, but using iron objects to cut meat. Through this, archaeologists can claim with certainty that the artifact is a sword, because simply ②